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Portugal’s pharmacists against legalisation of medicinal cannabis

cannabis"There is no scientific evidence to prove the efficacy and safety of its use," according to the Pharmacists’ working group when reporting to the parliamentary committee on health.
The group’s four expert pharmacists say there is no robust scientific evidence regarding the benefit-to-risk ratio of the use of the cannabis plant "for medicinal purposes," adding that, "there is strong evidence that there are safety concerns and toxicological potential."
The presentation of the pharmacists’ arguments, presented to the parliamentary committee, was led by Félix Carvalho, for whom, "there is no evidence that proves the efficacy and safety of its use."
Carvalho is a professor at the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Porto whose opinion is that "there are already medicines, whose active substances are cannabinoids, that are authorised in the market for therapeutic use with clinical evidence that supports a positive benefit-to-risk ratio in terms of efficacy and safety".
"In view of the existence of cannabinoid medicines that meet the current therapeutic needs", the working group expressed its concern regarding the use of the plant for medicinal purposes, as there is, “no added value compared to the drugs already approved."
The pharmacists pointed out that in Portugal there is a standard medicinal product, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive substance in cannabis plants) and CBD (cannabidiol, one of the cannabinoid chemicals found in Cannabis sativa), that is used, "in the improvement of the symptoms related to muscle stiffness (spasticity) and in multiple sclerosis”
Those keen to promote the legalisation of medicinal cannabis use point to a variety of benefits without the need to swallow pills manufactured by large pharmaceutical companies who are keen to protect their markets.
The pro-cannabis lobby in the US, cite the following benefits to the use of medicinal cannabis, aka marijuana:
1. Marijuana slows and stops cancer cells from spreading.
It was found in the study, published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, that Cannabidiol has the ability to stop cancer by turning off a gene called Id-1. In 2007, researchers at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, reported that CBD may prevent cancer from spreading. The researchers experimented on breast cancer cells in the lab that had high level of Id-1, and treated them with cannabidiol. The outcome was rather positive, the cells had decreased Id-1 expression, and were less aggressive spreaders. In fact, the American Association for Cancer Research has found that marijuana actually works to slow down tumor growth in brain, breast, and lungs considerately.
2. Prevents Alzheimer’s.
THC, the active ingredient present in marijuana slows the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, a 2006 study led by Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute found out. THC slows the formation of amyloid plaques by blocking the enzyme in the brain that makes them. These plaques kill the brain cells, and potentially lead to Alzheimer’s disease.
3. Treats Glaucoma.
Weed can be used to treat glaucoma, which increases the pressure in the eyeball, injuring the optic nerve and causing loss of vision. According to National Eye Institute, marijuana lowers the pressure inside the eye, “Studies in the early 1970s showed that marijuana, when smoked, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma.”
These effects of the drug can prevent blindness.
4. Relieves Arthritis.
In 2011, researchers reported that cannabis reduces pain and inflammation, and promotes sleep, which may help relieve pain and discomfort for people with rheumatoid arthritis.
Researchers of the rheumatology units at several hospitals gave their patients Sativex, a cannabinoid-based pain-relieving medicine. After two weeks, patients on Sativex had a significant reduction in pain, and improved better sleep quality compared to placebo users.
5. Controls Epileptic seizure.
A 2003 study showed that marijuana use can control epileptic seizure.
Robert J. DeLorenzo, of Virginia Commonwealth University, gave marijuana extract and synthetic marijuana to epileptic rats. The drugs stopped the seizures in about 10 hours. It is found out that the THC controlled the seizures by binding the brain cells responsible for controlling excitability and regulating relaxation. The results were published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
6. Eases the pain of multiple sclerosis.
Weed works to stop the negative neurological effects and muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis. A study published in the Canadian Medical Association suggests that marijuana may ease painful symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
Jody Cory Bloom studied 30 multiple sclerosis patients with painful contractions in their muscles. These patients didn’t respond to other medications, but after smoking marijuana for few days, they reported that they were in less pain. The THC in the pot bonds the receptors in the nerves and and muscles to relieve pain.
7. Soothes tremors for people with Parkinson’s disease.
Recent studies from Israel shows that smoking marijuana remarkably reduces pains and tremors and improves sleep for Parkinson’s disease patients. What was impressive about the research was the improvement of the fine motor skills among patients.
Israel has made medical marijuana legal, and a lot of research into the medical uses of weed is done there, supported by the Israeli Government.
8. Helps with Crohn’s disease.
Cannabis can cure Crohn’s disease. Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disorder that causes pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and more. But a recent study in Israel showed that smoking a joint considerably reduced Crohn’s disease symptoms in 10 out of 11 patients, and caused a complete cancellation ofthe disease in five of those patients.
Of course, this is a small study, but other researches have shown similar results. The cannabinoids from cannabis seem to help the gut control bacteria and intestinal function.
9. Decreases the symptoms of Dravet’s Syndrome.
Dravet Syndrome causes seizures and severe developmental delays. Dr. Sanjay Gupta, renowned chief medical correspondent for CNN, is treating a five years old girl, Charlotte Figi, who has Dravet’s Syndrome, with medical marijuana strain high in cannabidiol and low in THC.
During the research for his documentary “WEED”, Gupta interviewed the Figi family, and according to the film, the drug decreased her seizures from 300 a week to just one every seven days. Forty other children are using the same medication, and it has helped them too. The doctors who are recommending this medication say that the cannabidiol in the plant interacts with the brain cells to quiet the excessive activities in the brain that causes the seizures.
10. Lessens side effects from treating Hepatitis C, and increases treatment effectiveness.
Treating Hepatitis C infection has severe side effects, so severe that many people are unable to continue their treatment. Side effects range from fatigue, nausea, muscle pains, loss of appetite, and depression- and they last for months.
But, pot to the rescue: A 2006 study in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology discovered that 86% of patients using marijuana successfully finished their therapies, while only 29% of the non-smokers completed their treatments, maybe because marijuana helps to lessen the treatments’ side effects. Cannabis also helps to improve the treatment’s effectiveness. 54% of the Hep C patients smoking marijuana got their viral levels low, and kept them low, compared to the only 8% of the non-smokers.
11. Decreases anxiety.
In 2010, researchers at Harvard University suggested that some of the drug’s benefits may actually be reduced anxiety, which would improve the smoker’s mood and act as a sedative in low doses.
Beware, though, higher doses may increase anxiety and make you paranoid.
12. Helps reverse the carcinogen effects of tobacco, and improve lung health.
In January 2012, a study published in Journal of the American Medical Association showed that marijuana improved lung functions, and even increased lung capacity. Researchers looking for risks factors of heart disease, tested on 5,115 young adults, over the period of 20 years, and found out that only pot users showed an increase in lung capacity, compared to the tobacco smokers who lost lung function over time.
It is believed that the increased lung capacity is due to the deep breaths taken while inhaling the drug, and not from a therapeutic chemical in the drug.
13. Reduces severe pain, and nausea from chemo, and stimulates appetite.
One of the most common uses of medical marijuana is for people going through chemotherapy. Cancer patients going through chemo suffer from severe pains, painful nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. This can lead to further health complications.
Marijuana can help reduce these side effects, reducing pain, decreasing nausea, and stirring up the appetite. Also, there are other FDA approved cannabinoid drugs that use THC, for the same purposes.
14. Improves symptoms of Lupus, an autoimmune disorder.
Medical marijuana is used to treat the autoimmune disorder called Systemic Lupus Ertyhematosus, which is when the body starts attacking itself for unknown reasons.
It is believed that some chemicals present in cannabis is responsible to calm the immune system, which maybe the reason to help deal with symptoms of Lupus. The rest of the positive impact of the marijuana is probably from the effects of the pain and nausea.
15. Protects brain after a stroke.
Research (done on rats, mice, and monkeys) from University of Nottingham shows that cannabis may help protect the brain from damage caused by a stroke by reducing the size of the area affected by the stroke.
This isn’t the only research that has shown neuroprotective effects from cannabis. Some research shows that the plant may help protect the brain after other traumatic events like concussions.
16. Helps veterans suffering from PTSD
Marijuana is approved to treat PTSD in some states in America. In New Mexico, PTSD is the number one reason for people to get a license for medical marijuana, but this is the first time U.S. Government’s The Department of Health and Human Services has approved a proposal that incorporates smoked or vaporised marijuana.
Naturally occurring cannabinoids, similar to THC, help control the system that causes fear and anxiety in the body and brain.
17. Controls other types of muscle spasms.
Other types of muscle spasms respond to marijuana too. Another of Dr. Gupta’s patient, Chaz, has a condition called myoclonus diaphragmatic flutter (also known as Leeuwenhoek’s Disease). This causes non stop spasming in the abdominal muscles which are not only painful, but interfere with breathing and speaking. Chaz has been using medical marijuana to treat this disease because other very strong medications were unable to treat him properly.
Smoking marijuana is able to calm to calm the attacks almost immediately, relaxing the mucles of the diaphragm also.
18. Treats inflammatary bowel diseases.
Just like Crohn’s disease, patients with other inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis could benefit from marijuana use, studies suggest.
In 2010, University of Nottingham researchers have found that chemicals in marijuana, including THC, and cannabidiol, interact with cells in the body that play an important role in gut function, and immune system.  THC like chemicals made by the body increase the permeability of the intestines, allowing bacteria in. The plant-derived cannabinoids in marijuana block these body-cannabinoids, stopping this permeability, and making the intestinal bond tighter together.
19. Helps eliminate nightmares.
This is a bit complicated because it involves both positive and negative effects. Marijuana disturbs the sleep cycle by interrupting the later stages of REM sleep.
However, people who suffer from serious nightmares, especially patients with PTSD, this can be helpful. Nightmares and other dreams occur during those same stages of sleep. By interrupting REM sleep, many of those dreams may not occur. Research using a synthetic cannabinoid, like THC, showed a decrease in the number of nightmares in patients with PTSD. Marijuana maybe a better sleep aid than some other medications or even alcohol because the latter two may potentially have worse effects on sleep, though more research is needed on the topic.
20. Protects the brain from concussion, and trauma.
A recent study in the journal Cerebral Cortex showed possibilities that marijuana can help heal the brain after a concussion, or other traumatic injury. In the journal it was said that the experiments were done on mice, and that marijuana lessened the bruising of the brain, and helped with healing mechanisms after a traumatic injury.
Harvard professor emeritus of psychiatry and marijuana advocate Lester Grinspoon recently wrote an open letter to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodall, saying that NFL should stop testing players for marijuana, and instead should fund for research on marijuana plant’s ability to protect the brain. In the open letter, he writes,
“Already many doctors and researchers believe that marijuana has incredibly powerful neuroprotective properties, an understanding based on both laboratory, and clinical data.”
Not according to Portugal's Order of Pharmacists who want to keep prescribing a wide range of existing drugs for the above conditions.
With thanks to lifehack.org
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0 #10 Johan 2018-04-04 23:30
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+6 #9 Ricardo F F 2018-02-23 11:40
Its just a plant. Alcohol and tabacco kill more people than anything. People who smoke and grow cannabis are not criminals. Phameceutical drugs also kill plenty of people and are real drugs. People have a right to there freedom. Portuguese law makers are being hypocrits, they produce and sell cannabis, they will make billions a year in sales of THC containing cannabis, yet they say you cant smoke. Grow up and get a life. Stop trying to control others and robbing them of there God given rights. Cannabis is good.
+9 #8 AL 2018-02-22 15:05
In answer to Peter and Ed's comments the ingredient in cannabis that causes psychosis is THC which for the purpose of medical use is removed from the plant or only plants without THC are used. The beneficial ingredient is Cannabidiol. There are at least 113 different types Cannabinoids (THC being one)and some of them have shown (in clinical trials)to be able to treat the conditions listed in the article. So when pharmacists say that there is no scientific evidence of cannabis benefits, they are lying to protect their chemical based drugs market.
+6 #7 Peter Booker 2018-02-21 09:37
Thank you, Ed. You are very well informed on this matter. Decriminalising the substance looks like a nonsense. It looks as though it is still an offence for anyone to possess the stuff.

The potential effects to cannabis users look no worse than uncontrolled consumption of tobacco or alcohol.
0 #6 Ed 2018-02-21 09:02
Quoting Peter Booker:
This article lists the benefits attributed to the use of cannabis. What are the potential dangers?

if you're not used to it, you may feel faint or sick
it can make you sleepy and lethargic
it can affect your memory
it makes some people feel confused, anxious or paranoid, and some experience panic attacks and hallucinations – this is more common with stronger forms of cannabis like skunk or sinsemilla
it interferes with your ability to drive safely
If you use cannabis regularly, it can make you demotivated and uninterested in other things going on in your life, such as education or work.
Long-term use can affect your ability to learn and concentrate.
+2 #5 Ed 2018-02-21 09:00
Quoting Peter Booker:
And another thing - there was a time in the early 2000s when Portugal legalised the use of cannabis. Has that status changed?
It is 'decriminalised' not legalised. Drugs are still illegal but getting caught with them means a small fine - repeat offenders get referred to a treatment programme.
+1 #4 Peter Booker 2018-02-21 08:44
And another thing - there was a time in the early 2000s when Portugal legalised the use of cannabis. Has that status changed?
-5 #3 Peter Booker 2018-02-21 08:28
This article lists the benefits attributed to the use of cannabis. What are the potential dangers? There are many reports of an increased likelihood of psychosis or other damage to the brain. Are these reports now discounted, and why?
+6 #2 Chip 2018-02-20 22:52
Sounds like the pharmacists are protecting the status quo which pays their wages. If they already sell THC & CBD, the active ingredients, in pills made by the big pharma companies their only concern must be that the supply line would no longer come through them.
It always surprises me that patients are given morphine but not cannabis in most countries.
+7 #1 nogin the nog 2018-02-20 20:22
God these people are supposed to be professional with a view to helping people. This isn't just short sighted but criminal.

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