In coming issues we will publish a few chapters of this bilingual book, newly launched at the Confederação Empresarial de Portugal, presented by its President Antonio Saraiva, with foreword by the President of the Auditing Court of Portugal, Guilherme d’Oliveira Martins.
It was edited by Jack Soifer, with co-authors Francisco B. Weinholtz, John Wolf, Stefan de Vylder, Armindo Palma, Luis Silva, Henrique Neto and Viriato Soromenho-Marques.
History - 4
Click HERE to read Part 1
Click HERE to read Part 2
Click HERE to read Part 3
In “History 1” we wrote about the political parties using Euro from the lobby to finance their election campaigns and thus representing it, not the electors. In 2 we wrote about their use of the media, social net-works, mobile phones and much clutter to occupy the mind of the citizen and focus it on the interests of the powerful. This makes people work as slaves without thinking. In 3 we wrote that in the 18th century the laissez-faire, laissez-passez brought the “everything goes” except killing.
The Industrial Revolution and the Colonies
The freeing of slaves in the US & the Civil War divided the North American economy. Boilers & locomotives using firewood, and later charcoal, forced the rational exploitation of coal & metals which created steelmills, sawmills, mines and factories. Buildings of brick and bridges made of emerged where there was no wood. This brought a wave of industrial progress. However, laissez-passer brought about the Enlightenment and the exact sciences in Europe studied by thousands of students who then returned with the ability to leverage the wealth of raw materials & labour to develop the New World. The 20th century was rich in inventions & new techniques that facilitated the production of consumer goods that were affordable to a growing middle class.
The sons of merchants and landowners set up work-shops with their know-how. Artisans skilled in casting, mechanics, electricity, carpentry, etc, were challenged to copy machines seen at fairs. Piracy moved from mineral and natural resources to technology. Copies were then improved and low speeds compensated for by more work hours.
The rapid population growth in Europe, better hygiene, medicinal herbs and simple drugs, with limited arable land and the concentration of the means of production in a few hands, strengthened the conditions for new economic theories. Karl Marx said, simplified, there are only two means of production, capital+labour; capital is the profit of the work done by others. Marx preached socialism inspired by Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité & “from each one according to his ability, to each one according to his need”. This differed from the "what counts is the result", in America. Some gullible or tyrannical kings in the early 20th century caused chaos in their countries as in Germany, Russia, Spain & Portugal. The murder of one of these, in Sarajevo, led to the First World War.